Python is the most popular programming language for application development. It is designed to develop bug-free software in shorter time-frame. Python has largest number of third party libraries available for any type of computational tasks, be it application development, data science or artificial intelligence. It is possible to develop almost everything in Python. The only downside of Python is efficiency. Python is not suitable for developing systems which need to be very efficient like device drivers etc.
Java is the first programming language which was targeted to be portable and work on all kinds of devices like computers, mobile phones or any other embedded systems. Java runs on JVM, which makes it possible to run on any platform. Java has philosophy “Write once work anywhere”. Almost all large software enterprises rely heavily on Java. Only negative point of using Java is efficiency and speed of execution.
C and C++ are quite different from each other. C is procedure oriented while C++ is an object oriented programming language. But both of them are compiled and translated into machine code which makes them very efficient. Both of them have unmatched efficiency and speed of execution. The downside of using C/C++ is that application development is slower as compared to other programming languages.
Go is the newest programming language which combines best of all the worlds. It is efficient. It compiles very fast and it also has rich third party library support. Application development in Go is very fast. Go also has lot of built in checks which facilitate bug free software development.
C# is the most popular programming language on Windows platform. It is mostly used for application development. C# also runs on a virtual machine so it is platform independent. C# also enjoys support of huge libraries and frameworks by Microsoft.